Digital technology in the fields of gaming, film, and virtual reality has progressed to the point that computer-generated avatars are difficult to differentiate from their human counterparts. In this regard, digital human models used in science and technology are frequently very basic, and they frequently fail to meet the aesthetic requirements of the consumer sector. So, why do we need digital human models in the first place? The creation of such models began with the ergonomic design of workplaces, which, in the context of prospective ergonomics, required a human-friendly design in the design phase—even before any physical realization—on the drawing board. To this day, there are two approaches: on the one hand, anthropometric tables offer interpretative guidelines and standards; on the other hand, anthropometric tables provide interpretative guidelines and standards. In the early 1970s, however, an individualization of the interpretation started with the use of template models, as this approach was no longer adequate for the increasingly differentiated demands. When computer technology became available, unique three-dimensional digital human models were created for this purpose. To begin, two important modelling lines were distinguished: on the one hand, the anthropometric representations described above, in which the human dimensions, which are otherwise only available in table form, were made available in a three-dimensional model, and on the other hand, biomechanical models, which reflect the physics, especially the mechanical properties of the human body. With the advancement of computer technology and, in particular, the availability of more accurate measuring technology, two new areas of application for digital human models have emerged over time: physiological medical models and cognitive models. The paper provides a brief summary of the evolution of these topics within the context of the SAE DHM Conferences and their predecessors, as well as the difficulties that these four application fields face. Finding general relationships based on measurements, formulating them mathematically, and extending them out into areas of application that were not the focus of the measurements is a common challenge of all modelling. There are two fields of application: ergonomic workplace and process design on the one hand, and human behaviour optimization in sports and counselling on the other.
As a presentation method, the machine
Soft proofing and presentation for finished textile items are the two types of computer technology used for presentations. Soft proofing is a visual simulation that occurs during the design process, where design knowledge is combined with production data. Simultaneously, computer technology is used to create the final product presentation for prospective customers.
Soft proofing for print design simulates the final design production’s appearance, including engraving raster detail. Proofing weave and knit designs often simulate the final appearance of constructed fabric, including construction structure and yarn type. Final editing decisions are taken before development by looking at virtual textile croquis, which can save money on failed sampling. The latest advances in digital inkjet textile printing have produced a more efficient proofing method in printed textile design. Instead of creating a visual simulation on paper, inkjet printers will print on fabric to create a simulation of how the fabric would look if mass-produced. Prior to the final traditional mill strike-off phase, digitally printed pattern design samples on fabric are displayed in presentation meetings to business clients. Inkjet textile printing technologies are still used for this, and the process saves time and money as compared to traditional strike-off printed textile processing (Ujiie, 2006, pp. 340–341).
In concept storyboards, computer technology is often used to produce two-dimensional presentations. Visual representations that reinforce a design idea, such as weave and knit simulations, print design, colorway variations, and pattern mapping, are usually used in storyboards. Furthermore, most proprietary textile CAD software includes three-dimensional pattern mapping capabilities, such as style models for fashion designs and interior furniture. Some proprietary CAD software enables seamless incorporation of different design modules, such that changes to colorways and designs are automatically mirrored in the presentation modules. The use of multimedia in design presentations has grown in popularity as computer processing power and data storage capacity have improved. These presentations can be put together using a variety of media, such as still photographs, movie clips, and sound effects, all of which are produced by computers.
CAD, CIM, and CAM technologies are now widely used in the textile design industry. At the same time, only a few proprietary devices have survived and are used in this part of the industry. For example, in the 1990s there were numerous textile and apparel CAD manufacturers, including AFSO/CRE8TIV, Athena Design Systems, AVA CAD/CAM, AVL Looms, Barco Graphics, Cadtex, CDI, EAT, InfoDesign, Gerber Technology, JacqCAD, Lectra Systems, Negraphics, Point Carre, Scotweave, Sophia, TCS, Viable Systems, and so on (CITDA, 1993, 1995; Melling, 1998). However, due to vendor restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, only a few select clothing apparel computer systems existed in 2010. Computer technology used in textile design have developed their own features.